Metropolis and state capital in Madhya Pradesh, India
Metropolis in Madhya Pradesh, India
The Metropolis of Lakes
|• Physique||Bhopal Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Alok Sharma (BJP)|
|• Member of Parliament||Pragya Singh Thakur (2019 – current)|
|• Metropolis||463 km2 (179 sq mi)|
|• Metro||648.24 km2 (250.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||527 m (1,729 ft)|
|• Density||3,887/km2 (10,070/sq mi)|
| • Metro
(Bhopal + Arera Colony + Berasia city areas)
|• Metro rank||21st|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
462001 to 462050
|Precipitation||1,123.1 millimetres (44.22 in)|
|Avg. excessive temperature||31.7 °C (89.1 °F)|
|Avg. low temperature||18.6 °C (65.5 °F)|
Bhopal (; Hindustani pronunciation: [bʱoːpaːl] (listen)) is the capital metropolis of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the executive headquarters of each Bhopal district and Bhopal division. It is named the Metropolis of Lakes for its varied pure and synthetic lakes and for being one of many greenest cities in India. It’s the 16th largest city in India and 131st on this planet. After formation of Madhya Pradesh, the state capital Bhopal was part of the Sehore district. It was bifurcated in 1972 and a brand new district Bhopal was fashioned.
Based in 1707, town was the capital of the previous Bhopal State, a princely state of the British dominated by the Nawabs of Bhopal. Quite a few heritage constructions from this era embody the Taj-ul-Masajid and Taj Mahal palace. In 1984, town was struck by the Bhopal disaster, one of many worst industrial disasters in historical past.
A Y-class city, Bhopal homes varied instructional and analysis establishments and installations of nationwide significance, together with ISRO‘s Master Control Facility,BHEL and AMPRI. Bhopal is dwelling to the biggest variety of institutes of National Importance in India, particularly, IISER, MANIT, SPA, AIIMS, NLIU, IIFM and IIIT (at present performing from a short lived campus inside MANIT).
Town attracted worldwide consideration in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant (now owned by Dow Chemical Company) leaked a mix of lethal gases composed primarily of methyl isocyanate, resulting in one of many worst industrial disasters on this planet’s historical past. The Bhopal catastrophe continues to be part of the socio-political debate and a logistical problem for the individuals of Bhopal.
Bhopal was chosen as one of many first twenty Indian cities (the primary part) to be developed as a smart city underneath PM Narendra Modi’s flagship Smart Cities Mission. Bhopal was additionally rated because the cleanest state capital metropolis in India for 3 consecutive years, 2017, 2018 and 2019.
Early historical past
In line with folklore, Bhopal was based within the Eleventh century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who dominated from his capital at Dhar. This concept states that Bhopal was initially often known as Bhojpal after a dam (pal) constructed by the king’s minister. No archaeological proof, inscriptions or historic texts assist the declare about an earlier settlement based by Bhoja on the similar place. An alternate concept says that town is known as after one other king referred to as Bhupala (or Bhupal).
Within the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village within the Gond kingdom. The fashionable Bhopal metropolis was established by Dost Mohammad Khan (1672–1728), a Pashtun soldier within the Mughal military. After the demise of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan began offering mercenary providers to native chieftains within the politically unstable Malwa area. In 1709, he took on the lease of Berasia property and later annexed a number of territories within the area to determine the Bhopal State. Khan obtained the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Kamlapati in lieu of cost for mercenary providers and usurped her kingdom after her demise. Within the 1720s, he constructed the Fatehgarh fort within the village, which developed into town of Bhopal over the following few many years.
Bhopal grew to become a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818. Between 1819 and 1926, the state was dominated by 4 ladies, Begums – distinctive within the royalty of these days – underneath British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the primary girl ruler (between 1819 and 1837), who was succeeded by her granddaughter, Shah Jehan. Between the years 1844–1860, when Shah Jehan was a toddler, her mom Sikandar (solely daughter of Qudsia) dominated as regent, and was then recognised as ruler in 1860. She dominated till 1868, when Shah Jehan succeeded her and was Begum till 1901. In 1901, Shah Jehan’s daughter Kaikhusrau Jahan grew to become Begum, dominated till 1926, and was the final of the feminine line of succession. In 1926, she abdicated in favour of her son, Hamidullah Khan, who dominated till 1947, and was the final of the sovereign Nawabs. The rule of Begums gave town its waterworks, railways, a postal system, and a municipality constituted in 1907.
Put up independence
Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state: the primary being Hyderabad. After the independence of India in 1947, the final Nawab expressed his want to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations in opposition to the Nawab broke out in December 1948, resulting in the arrest of distinguished leaders together with Shankar Dayal Sharma. Later, the political detainees had been launched, and the Nawab signed the settlement for Bhopal’s merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949. The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Authorities of India on 1 June 1949.
In early December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked round 32 tons of poisonous gases, together with methyl isocyanate (MIC) fuel which led to the worst industrial disaster in the world to date.
The official death toll was initially recorded as round 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh authorities report acknowledged 3,787 deaths, whereas different estimates state the fatalities had been considerably increased (16,000) from the accident and the medical problems attributable to the accident within the weeks and years that adopted. The upper estimates have been challenged. The impression of the catastrophe continues to today when it comes to psychological and neurological disabilities, blindness, pores and skin, imaginative and prescient, respiration, and beginning problems.
The soil and floor water close to the manufacturing unit website have been contaminated by the poisonous wastes. The Bhopal catastrophe continues to be the a part of the socio-political debate; the clean-up of environmental contamination and rehabilitation of these affected continues to problem the individuals of Bhopal.
The Centre is in search of a route to Union Carbide and different corporations for ₹ 78.44 billion further quantity over and above the sooner settlement quantity of USD 470 million in 1989 for paying compensation to the fuel tragedy victims.
Bhopal has a mean elevation of 500 metres (1401 ft) and is positioned within the central a part of India, simply north of the higher restrict of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Positioned on the Malwa plateau, it’s increased than the north Indian plains and the land rises in direction of the Vindhya Range to the south. Town has uneven elevation and has small hills inside its boundaries. The distinguished hills in Bhopal are the Idgah and Shyamala hills within the northern area, along with the Katara hills within the southern area. There are two lakes particularly upper lake and lower lake. The Higher Lake has a floor space of 36 km2 and catchment space of 361 km2 whereas the Decrease Lake has a floor space of 1.29 km2 and catchment space of 9.6 km2. Not too long ago, Bhopal Municipal Company got here with a decision to contain native residents in cleansing, conserving and sustaining the lakes. Bhopal metropolis is split into two components the place one half which is close to the VIP and lake is Previous Bhopal (north) and the opposite, New Bhopal (south), the place malls are primarily located.
|Local weather chart (explanation)|
Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with cool, dry winters, a scorching summer season and a damp monsoon season. Summers begin in late March and go on until mid-June, the common temperature being round 30 °C (86 °F), with the height of summer season in Might, when the highs recurrently exceed 40 °C (104 °F) Excessive excessive in Might was 46.7 °C on 19 Might 2016 and in June it was 45.9 °C on 7 June 2019. The monsoon begins in late June and ends in late September. These months see about 40 inches (1020 mm) of precipitation, frequent thunderstorms and flooding. The typical temperature is round 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is kind of excessive. Temperatures rise once more as much as early November when winter begins, which lasts as much as early March. Winters in Bhopal are cool, and never very a lot comfy like summers, with common each day temperatures round 16 °C (61 °F). The winter peaks in January when temperatures might drop near freezing on some nights. Lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.3 °C. Complete annual rainfall is about 1146 mm (46 inches).
|File excessive °C (°F)||33.0
|Common excessive °C (°F)||25.1
|Common low °C (°F)||10.8
|File low °C (°F)||0.6
|Common rainfall mm (inches)||14.7
|Common wet days||1.2||1.0||0.8||0.4||1.6||7.0||13.8||13.9||8.1||2.1||0.8||0.5||51.1|
|Common relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||40||30||21||18||21||45||71||76||65||42||40||40||43|
|Imply month-to-month sunshine hours||279.0||271.2||285.2||303.0||303.8||195.0||108.5||105.4||192.0||275.9||270.0||263.5||2,852.5|
|Imply each day sunshine hours||9.0||9.6||9.2||10.1||9.8||6.5||3.5||3.4||6.4||8.9||9.0||8.5||7.8|
|Supply: India Meteorological Department (solar 1971–2000)|
In line with the 2011 census, the inhabitants of the Bhopal metropolis (the world underneath Bhopal Municipal Company) is 1,798,218, with 936,168 males and 862,050 females. The inhabitants of the Bhopal metropolitan space (the urban agglomeration that extends past Bhopal metropolis) was 1,886,100 in 2011. The full efficient literacy price (for inhabitants aged 7+ years) was 85.24%, with female and male literacy respectively at 89.2% and 80.1%.
Authorities and politics
Bhopal is the title of the division, in addition to the district and the capital metropolis of the district. The division is headed by the commissioner and extra commissioner for the division. The division has 5 districts, of which Bhopal is one. Bhopal district administration is headed by the District Justice of the Peace of Bhopal, who’s the Chief Govt Officer for the district.
Town is represented within the parliament by Bhopal Lok Sabha constituency, with Pragya Singh Thakur from the BJP elected in 2019. Bhopal additionally homes the State Legislative Meeting, or the Vidhan Sabha, which seats 230 members of Legislative Meeting. The fourteenth (and present) Vidhan Sabha was elected in December 2018. As of March 2020[update], the get together within the majority in Vidhan Sabha is Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) with 107 seats which is led by Shivraj Singh Chouhan. Bhopal district elects seven seats to the Meeting, and as per delimitation in 2008, Bhopal metropolis is represented in 6 constituencies:
|State meeting constituency||Wards||Councillor||Political get together|
|Bhopal Uttara||5-18, 22||Arif Aqueel||Indian Nationwide Congress|
|Narela||39-42, 46, 56-58, 66||Vishvas Sarang||Bhartiya Janata Social gathering|
|Bhopal Dakshin-Paschim||26-35, 48-49||PC Sharma||Indian Nationwide Congress|
|Bhopal Madhya||19-21, 23-25, 36-38, 43-45, 47-50, 50-52||Arif Masood||Indian Nationwide Congress|
|Govindpura||53-55, 59-63, 65||Krishna Gaur||Bhartiya Janata Social gathering|
|Huzur||1-4||Rameshwar Sharma||Bhartiya Janata Social gathering|
It’s also a part of the bigger city agglomeration of Bhopal, with a inhabitants of 1,883,381. The primary municipal physique that ruled the municipal inhabitants of town got here into being in 1907 in erstwhile Bhopal property, and was referred to as Majlis-e-intezamia”. The primary metropolis survey was carried out in 1916 after the enactment of Municipal act. Until 1956, the world underneath Bhopal Municipal restrict was very small, after which surrounding villages had been added to it. By 1975, the municipal restrict reached 71.23 sq. km. Bhopal Municipal Council bought the standing of Municipal Company, with whole of 56 wards in 1983.
Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) is the city civic physique which oversees the wants of Bhopal metropolis. The municipal company follows tips underneath the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Company Act, 1956, in addition to the Madhya Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1961. In 2015, Kolar Municipal Company merged with it, after having been cut up from it earlier. In 2019, it was introduced that the company could be cut up once more and a proposal was put forth to the city administration and housing division, which was criticised by the mayor-in-council. It additionally proposed for oblique election of the mayor.
The municipal company is unfold over an space of 463 km2 (179 sq mi) and has a inhabitants of 1795648. Town is split into 14 zones and 85 wards for the aim of administration, and every ward is represented by a councillor elected for a time period of 5 years. The profitable get together elects a council of members, who’re answerable for varied departments. Ward committees in addition to Mohalla committees have been prescribed by the company act. In October 2016, the Pioneer reported the assembly of 1 ward committee within the metropolis. Madhya Pradesh is without doubt one of the few states in India, which makes use of the Mayor-in-Council (MIC) system and therefore the elected representatives of the Bhopal Municipal Company are additionally organised as MIC. There are a number of municipal departments in BMC akin to Well being and Atmosphere; Training, Social JusticeFood and Tradition; Planning and Rehabilitation; Public Relations and Library; Fireplace Brigade and Transport; Energy; Engineering; Income and Undertaking; Accounting; JnNURM; M.P.U.S.P and Common Administration.
Elections had been due in January 2020, these had been postponed because of the pandemic. As of September 2020, the reservation of wards has been determined. The current mayor of town is Alok Sharma. In 2019, the state authorities modified the foundations that had utilized since 1988, permitting the mayor to be not directly elected, by elected councillors. V.S.Choudhary Kolsani is the municipal commissioner of town. Extra municipal commissioner is Shashwant Singh Meena.
The municipality receives earnings from tax assortment, assigned income, rental earnings, charges and person fees, income grants, earnings from funding funds. The finances for the yr 2020-21 has been permitted as Rs 2495 crore.
Bhopal Growth Authority is the apex physique for planning and co-ordination of improvement actions within the Mandhya Pradesh, which consists of Bhopal and its affect space, and was arrange in 1976 underneath the Bhopal Growth Authority Act, 1974.
Electrical energy in Bhopal is distributed by the Madhya Pradesh Madhya Kshetra Vidyut Vitaran Firm Restricted, the central discom of the state. It’s regulated by the state electrical energy board, the Madhya Pradesh State Electrical energy Board (MPSEB), which is positioned in Bhopal. Fireplace providers are supplied by the Bhopal Municipal Company.
Bhopal Municipal Corporation is answerable for planning, developing and sustaining the water provide system inside the metropolis. Pure sources of water are floor water (higher lake, kolar reservoir, narmada river), with a good portion of the inhabitants relying on floor water (tubewells, handpumps) in addition to privately owned and unaccounted for dugwells and borewells. In line with a examine accomplished in 2014, piped water provide within the metropolis covers about 6% of the inhabitants; nevertheless, irregular and dangerous high quality of water provide is a standard criticism within the metropolis.
System of strong waste disposal in city areas is ruled by the municipality underneath the Municipal Solid Wastes (Administration and Dealing with) Guidelines 2000. These guidelines have been framed underneath the Atmosphere Safety Act, 1986. Town of Bhopal generates 900 tonnes of strong waste. As of 2018, only one.5% of this waste is segregated. Whereas the municipality web site states that door-to-door assortment was began by BMC at every zone and ward degree from 15 August 2013,Free Press Journal has reported in 2020 that the civic physique has failed in the identical. Bhopal has 8 switch stations, the place the rubbish collected zone smart is dumped, and with none segregation, the waste is transferred to the Adampur Chhawni landfill site. In 2018, after the Nationwide Inexperienced Tribunal (NGT) directed the BMC to wash dump at Bhanpur, which activists declare is 80 ft excessive and has polluted floor water as much as 500 metres under, the trenching floor was shifted to Adampur. In 2019, it was introduced that India’s first e-waste clinic was being arrange in Bhopal. BMC together with Central Pollution Control Board got here collectively to determine this clinic which is able to allow segregation, processing and disposal of waste, each residential and business. In January 2020, the clinic was inaugurated for operations. It began initially as a three-month pilot and if the pilot is profitable, the clinics will likely be opened somewhere else as effectively.
As of 2017, town of Bhopal produces 310 MLD of sewage per day, of which solely 50 MLD is handled within the 7 Sewage therapy crops which have a capability of 80 MLD. Many of the sewage reaches water our bodies, the Higher and Decrease Lake, Motia Lake, Siddique Hasan Lake, Munshi Hussain Khan Lake. There are about 800 massive drains in Bhopal. About 80% sewerage water mixes with storm water drains foremost drains embody Patra, Mandi and Hataikheda, Jatkhedi.
After a spot of 25 years, the state capital’s masterplan 2031 was lastly launched in March 2020 by the Directorate of City and Nation Planning, Madhya Pradesh. The earlier masterplan of 1995 was legitimate until 2005; and Bhopal had no masterplan between 2005 and 2020. Bhopal Municipal Company was ranked third out of 21 Cities for greatest governance and administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.7 on 10 in comparison with the nationwide common of three.3.
Diwali and Eid are main festivals in Bhopal. Presents and sweets are exchanged and donation are made to the poor. Diwali is widely known by worshiping the wealth goddess Lakshmi. Eid is particular to town as all of the Hindus take trip to go to their Muslim associates and greet them and get handled with delicacies, the speciality of the day being candy sewaiya. Bhopali tradition is such that each Hindus and Muslims go to one another on their respective festivals to greet and trade sweets. Throughout Ganesh puja and Durga Puja (Navratras), idols of Ganesh and Durga are established in jhankis all through town. Individuals throng to supply prayers to their deities. On the finish of Navratras, on the day of Vijayadashami (or Dussehra), large effigies of Ravan are burnt in numerous components of town.
Bhopal Ijtema is an annual Muslim world preachers congregation, is held at Ghasipura 11 km from Bhopal. The annual congregation close to Bhopal attracts between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Muslims globally.
Town was the primary in state and all of central India to organise an LGBTQ+ delight march, the Bhopal Pride March on 17 Might 2017 (International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia). The march noticed an enormous participation from the members of the queer neighborhood in addition to straight allies. It was adopted in 2018 by a second version which was held on 15 July 2018.
Bharat Bhavan is the principle cultural centre of town, and hosts many theatre and movie festivals yearly. It has an artwork gallery, an open-air amphitheatre going through the Higher Lake, two different theatres and a tribal museum. The Bharat Bhavan in addition to the MP Legislative Assembly had been designed by Charles Correa.
The key industries within the outdated metropolis are electrical items, medicinal, cotton, chemical compounds and jewelry. Different industries embody cotton and flour milling, material weaving and portray, in addition to making matches, sealing wax, and sporting gear. The residents of Bhopal additionally interact in massive retail companies. Handicrafts, like zardozi and batua (a small string purse, normally used with Indian conventional attire) are among the merchandise of the Previous Metropolis.
Bhopal can be dwelling to the DB Corp, informally referred to as the Bhaskar Group (named after its main publication Dainik Bhaskar), a ₹17 billion enterprise conglomerate with a robust presence in media. Its head workplace is positioned in Maharana Pratap Nagar.
- Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the biggest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal. It occupies a big space within the Jap A part of town and maintains a suburb named after it. A majority of the residents of the BHEL Suburb are employed by the unit.
- Mandideep is an industrial suburb of Bhopal. It’s positioned to the south of town on the NH 12. Mandideep’s whole exports are value some 2,300 crore rupees ($500m; £300m) per yr, making it the biggest industrial space in Madhya Pradesh. The city is dwelling to Hindustan Electo Graphite (HEG), proudly owning the biggest graphite electrode plant on this planet and is the biggest industrial firm in your entire state. Hindustan Electro Graphite (HEG) and Lupin Laboratories ltd. are the dominant corporations within the suburb, every exports value round 900 crore rupees.
The Raja Bhoj International Airport is positioned close to the suburb of Sant Hirdaram Nagar (previously often known as Bairagarh) and is the first airport serving the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.
There are three routes or methods to achieve the airport: (1) By way of Bairagad, (2) By way of Panchvati, (3) By way of Gandhi Nagar street (N.H 12). From inside the metropolis, VIP Street, a 4 lane street takes one to the airport, which lies 15 km to the north of town. Worldwide flights started operations in 2010.
Home direct flight providers are operated by Air India, Spice Jet and Indigo. As of January 2020, Bhopal has continuous flights to New Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Udaipur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune and Raipur.
There is just one seasonal worldwide flight from Bhopal and that’s to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and is used primarily by Hajj pilgrims.
Bhopal lies within the West Central Railway Zone. Contemplating each North-South and East-West practice routes, it is without doubt one of the most rail related cities in India which halts greater than 200 each day trains, with a complete of greater than 380 trains inside per week. The principle stations of Bhopal are the Bhopal Junction station positioned in outdated Bhopal in addition to Bhopal Habibganj station positioned in new Bhopal. Each of the stations are outfitted with WiFi, has sufficient ready halls, refreshment heart, passenger ticket counter and ticket merchandising machines, car parking, communication facility, sanitary facility and devoted authorities railway police drive to make sure safety. Altogether town has six railway stations inside its metropolis limits.
The Bhopal Junction station in addition to Bhopal Habibganj station are chosen together with 47 different railway stations to emerge as The World Class Railway Station. Whereas the work has already began on improvement of Bhopal Habibganj as the primary world class railway station of India. The Bhopal Junction and Bhopal Habibganj have already obtained ISO 9001:2000 certificates.
The Bhopal Junction station homes the Divisional Railway Supervisor’s (DRM) head workplace underneath West Central railways.
Nationwide Freeway 46 varieties a ring-road round Bhopal which connects it to Jabalpur within the East (through NH 45). NH 146, a department of NH 46, connects town to Sagar within the East. State Freeway 18 connects town with Indore (with Sehore and Dewas on the best way). State Freeway 23 connects town to Guna and Berasia within the north.
The Bus Rapid Transit System, which opened in 2013, is run by Bhopal Metropolis Hyperlink Restricted (BCLL). The corporate has recognized 4 trunk and eight customary routes within the metropolis on which 225 buses could be operated each day (365 a day in a yr), from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. 82 bus stops are constructed alongside the 24 km lengthy hall.
Bhopal has greater than 550 state-sponsored faculties, most of that are affiliated to the Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education (MPBSE). As well as, there are three Kendriya Vidyalayas within the metropolis. Town can be served by quite a few different personal faculties affiliated to both CBSE, ICSE, MPBSE, NIOS and CIE (Cambridge).
There are numerous universities in Bhopal and its fifteen Establishments of Nationwide Significance is the best variety of any city in India outdoors New Delhi. The institutes and universities headquartered within the metropolis embody:
Bhopal Badshahs is a hockey staff primarily based in Bhopal that performs in World Collection Hockey. The staff is captained by Indian hockey participant Sameer Dad and coached by Vasudevan Bhaskaran who was the captain of India’s Olympic victory in 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Badshahs defeated Chandigarh Comets within the inaugural match of 2012 World Series Hockey 4-3. Aishbagh Stadium in Bhopal is the house floor of Bhopal Badshahs.
Locations of curiosity
Bhimbetka Caves are about 35 kilometres from Bhopal metropolis. They’ve proof of dwellings of pre-historic man throughout the Paleolithic period. Rock work within the caves are specimens of pre-historic settlements in India. There are about 600 caves, however solely 12 are open for guests. The caves are positioned within the midst of sal and teak forests and features a brief path across the caves. They had been found by Wakankar in 1957. UNESCO declared Bhimbetka Caves as a World Heritage Website in 2003.
Van Vihar National Park is a nationwide park in central India. It’s positioned in Bhopal, the capital metropolis of Madhya Pradesh. Declared a nationwide park in 1979, it covers an space of about 4.45 km2. Though it has the standing of a nationwide park, Van Vihar is developed and managed as a contemporary zoological park, following the rules of the Central Zoo Authority. The animals are stored of their close to pure habitat. Many of the animals are both orphaned introduced from varied components of the state or these, that are exchanged from different zoos. No animal is intentionally captured from the forest. Van Vihar is exclusive as a result of it permits quick access to the guests via a street passing via the park, safety of animals assured from poachers by constructing trenches and partitions, chain-link fence and by offering pure habitat to the animals.
Politics, civil service, science
Movie and tv
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